Skip to main content
A 4D view on mRNA
Open Access Articles
  • Carlas Smith, University of Massachusetts Medical School
  • Li-Chun Tu, University of Massachusetts Medical School
  • David Grünwald, University of Massachusetts Medical School
UMMS Affiliation
RNA Therapeutics Institute; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology
Publication Date
Document Type

Imaging single molecules in live cells in 4+ D (space, time and colors) is crucial for studying various biological processes, especially for observing the behavior of RNA molecules within the nuclear landscape [1]. RNA molecules are known to serve a multitude of tasks such as being templates for protein translation or to act as enzymes for regulating countless reactions in the nucleus [1]. Studying RNA kinetics in living cells can provide new information on RNA function or even human diseases, for instance caused by viruses such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) [2]. A challenge to imaging nuclear RNA function is that the nucleus as a whole undergoes major reformation during the cell cycle [1] but the time required to step through the sample limits the capability to image large numbers of rapidly moving particles in a 3D space.

  • 3D microscopy,
  • biophysics,
  • mRNA trafficking,
  • single molecule imaging
Rights and Permissions

All site content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

DOI of Published Version
Oncotarget. 2015 Oct 6;6(30):28515-6. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.5121. Link to article on publisher's site
Related Resources
Link to Article in PubMed
PubMed ID
Creative Commons License
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0
Citation Information
Carlas Smith, Li-Chun Tu and David Grünwald. "A 4D view on mRNA" Vol. 6 Iss. 30 (2015) ISSN: 1949-2553 (Linking)
Available at: