A 3.3-year-old 125-kg castrated male llama was evaluated because of acute non-weight-bearing lameness on the left hind limb. Physical examination revealed crepitus in the midportion of the femur. On radiographs, a comminuted middiaphyseal fracture was seen. There was also a region of bone lysis with cortical thinning and expansion in the distal metaphysis and epiphysis of the left femur. Multiple small circular lesions were observed in the proximal metaphysis of the left femur, and the proximal portion of the left tibia appeared irregular. The owner elected to pursue treatment, and the fracture was repaired with 2 compression plates. Multiple bone biopsy specimens were obtained and submitted for bacterial culture and histologic examination. Cultures yielded neither bacteria nor fungi. Histologic examination revealed fibrous connective tissue, normal appearing cortical bone, and an absence of medullary structures. The llama was maintained in a hind-limb sling for 14 days after surgery, at which time follow-up radiography revealed a comminuted fracture of the proximal portion of the femur. The llama was euthanatized, and multifocal polyostotic aneurysmal bone cysts were found in the proximal and distal metaphyses of the left femur and tibia. Cysts were lined by fibroblasts or endothelial-like cells.
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