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Pharmacokinetics of intravenously administered caffeine in healthy alpacas (Lama pacos) and llamas (Lama glama)
American journal of veterinary research (2006)
  • J Lakritz
  • J R Middleton
  • David E Anderson
  • D R Linden
  • R A Sams
  • R K Tessman
  • J W Tyler
Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the pharmacokinetic disposition of IV administered caffeine in healthy Lama spp camelids.

ANIMALS: 4 adult male alpacas and 4 adult female llamas.

PROCEDURES: Caffeine (3 mg/kg) was administered as an IV bolus. Plasma caffeine concentrations were determined by use of high-performance liquid chromatography in 6 animals and by use of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in 2 llamas.

RESULTS: Median elimination half-life was 11 hours (range, 9.3 to 29.8 hours) in alpacas and 16 hours (range, 5.4 to 17 hours) in llamas. The volume of distribution at steady state was 0.60 L/kg (range, 0.45 to 0.93 L/kg) in alpacas and 0.75 L/kg (range, 0.68 to 1.15 L/kg) in llamas. Total plasma clearance was 44 mL/h/kg (range, 24 to 56 mL/h/kg) in alpacas and 42 mL/h/kg (range, 30 to 109 mL/h/kg) in llamas.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: High-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were suitable methods for determination of plasma caffeine concentrations in alpacas and llamas. Plasma caffeine concentration-time curves were best described by a 2-compartment model. Elimination half-lives, plasma clearance, volume of distribution at steady state, and mean residence time were not significantly different between alpacas and llamas. Intravenous administration of caffeine at a dose of 3 mg/kg did not induce clinical signs of excitement.

Publication Date
June, 2006
Citation Information
J Lakritz, J R Middleton, David E Anderson, D R Linden, et al.. "Pharmacokinetics of intravenously administered caffeine in healthy alpacas (Lama pacos) and llamas (Lama glama)" American journal of veterinary research Vol. 67 Iss. 6 (2006)
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/david_anderson1/47/