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Identification of Leptospira interrogans phospholipase C as a novel virulence factor responsible for intracellular free calcium ion elevation during macrophage death
PLoS One
  • Jing-Fang Zhao, Zhejiang University School of Medicine
  • Hong-Hu Chen, Zhejiang University School of Medicine
  • David M. Ojcius, University of California, Merced
  • Xin Zhao, Zhejiang University School of Medicine
  • Dexter Sun, Cornell University
  • Yu-Mei Ge, Zhejiang University School of Medicine
  • Lin-Li Zheng, Zhejiang University School of Medicine
  • Xu'ai Lin, Zhejiang University School of Medicine
  • Lan-Juan Li, Zhejiang University School of Medicine
  • Jie Yan, Zhejiang University School of Medicine
ORCiD
David M. Ojcius: 0000-0003-1461-4495
Document Type
Article
DOI
10.1371/journal.pone.0075652
Publication Date
10-4-2013
Abstract
Background: Leptospira-induced macrophage death has been confirmed to play a crucial role in pathogenesis of leptospirosis, a worldwide zoonotic infectious disease. Intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) elevation induced by infection can cause cell death, but [Ca2+]i changes and high [Ca2+]i-induced death of macrophages due to infection of Leptospira have not been previously reported. Methodology/Principal Findings: We first used a Ca2+-specific fluorescence probe to confirm that the infection of L. interrogans strain Lai triggered a significant increase of [Ca2+]i in mouse J774A.1 or human THP-1 macrophages. Laser confocal microscopic examination showed that the [Ca2+]i elevation was caused by both extracellular Ca2+ influx through the purinergic receptor, P2X7, and Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum, as seen by suppression of [Ca2+]i elevation when receptor-gated calcium channels were blocked or P2X7 was depleted. The LB361 gene product of the spirochete exhibited phosphatidylinositol phospholipase C (L-PI-PLC) activity to hydrolyze phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) into inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3), which in turn induces intracellular Ca2+ release from endoplasmic reticulum, with the Km of 199 µM and Kcat of 8.566E-5 S-1. Secretion of L-PI-PLC from the spirochete into supernatants of leptospire-macrophage co-cultures and cytosol of infected macrophages was also observed by Western Blot assay. Lower [Ca2+]i elevation was induced by infection with a LB361-deficient leptospiral mutant, whereas transfection of the LB361 gene caused a mild increase in [Ca2+]i. Moreover, PI-PLCs (PI-PLC-β3 and PI-PLC-γ1) of the two macrophages were activated by phosphorylation during infection. Flow cytometric detection demonstrated that high [Ca2+]i increases induced apoptosis and necrosis of macrophages, while mild [Ca2+]i elevation only caused apoptosis. Conclusions/Significance: This study demonstrated that L. interrogans infection induced [Ca2+]i elevation through extracellular Ca2+ influx and intracellular Ca2+ release cause macrophage apoptosis and necrosis, and the LB361 gene product was shown to be a novel PI-PLC of L. interrogans responsible for the [Ca2+]i elevation.
Comments
Article e75652
Citation Information
Jing-Fang Zhao, Hong-Hu Chen, David M. Ojcius, Xin Zhao, et al.. "Identification of Leptospira interrogans phospholipase C as a novel virulence factor responsible for intracellular free calcium ion elevation during macrophage death" PLoS One Vol. 8 Iss. 10 (2013) p. 1 - 15 ISSN: 1932-6203
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/david-ojcius/116/