More so than any other terrestrial vertebrate, birds rely most heavily on their ability to assess their visual environment. High visual acuity is not only necessary to find and acquire food, but also to navigate surroundings, to identify conspecifics and potential mates, and to quickly identify and escape from predators. This article aims to help the reader understand how birds, particularly birds of prey, see by reviewing pertinent anatomy and physiology of the eye, color vision, visual fields, visual acuity, accommodation, and flicker-fusion frequency. For more information on specific disease conditions of the avian eye, the reader is encouraged to review any number of avian medical and surgical texts.
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/daniel_ward/17/