Skip to main content
Characterization of Filamentous Foaming in Activated Sludge Systems using Oligonucleotide Hybridization Probes and Antibody Probes
Water Science and Technology
  • Francis L. de los Reyes, III
  • Daniel B. Oerther, Missouri University of Science and Technology
  • M. Fiorella de los Reyes
  • Mark Thomas Hernández
  • Lutgarde M. Raskin

A quantitative method was developed for estimating Gordona mass in activated sludge foam and mixed liquor samples. The technique involves in situ hybridization with a genus-specific fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide probe calibrated on pure cultures of Gordona. The immunofluorescent technique of Hernandez et al. was modified to allow staining with fluorescently labeled antibody and hybridization probes. The results of this technique were compared to those from membrane hybridization studies using radioactively-labeled oligonucleotide probes. Quantitative membrane hybridizations, in situ hybridizations, and antibody staining resulted in significantly different levels of Gordona in activated sludge foam, activated sludge mixed liquor, return activated sludge, and anaerobic digester sludge. Simultaneous staining with labeled antibodies and oligonucleotide probes provide a definitive identification for Gordona, and represents a new approach for in situ studies of this organism's role in foaming.

Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering
Keywords and Phrases
  • Antibodies,
  • Bacteria,
  • Fluorescence,
  • Foam control,
  • Antibody probes,
  • Filamentous bacteria,
  • Activated sludge process,
  • antibody,
  • activated sludge,
  • bacterium,
  • foaming,
  • activated sludge,
  • anaerobic digestion,
  • bacterium culture,
  • hybridization,
  • immunofluorescence,
  • in situ hybridization,
  • isotope labeling,
  • nocardia,
  • nonhuman,
  • oligonucleotide probe,
  • quantitative assay
Document Type
Article - Conference proceedings
Document Version
File Type
© 1998 Elsevier Sci Ltd, Exeter, United Kingdom, All rights reserved.
Publication Date
Citation Information
Francis L. de los Reyes, Daniel B. Oerther, M. Fiorella de los Reyes, Mark Thomas Hernández, et al.. "Characterization of Filamentous Foaming in Activated Sludge Systems using Oligonucleotide Hybridization Probes and Antibody Probes" Water Science and Technology Vol. 37 Iss. 4-5 (1998) p. 485 - 493 ISSN: 0273-1223
Available at: