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An Experimental Study of Molten Microdroplet Surface Deposition and Solidification: Transient Behavior and Wetting Angle Dynamics
Journal of Heat Transfer (2000)
  • Daniel Attinger
  • Z. Zhao
  • D. Poulikakos
The basic problem of the impact and solidification of molten droplets on a substrate is of central importance to a host of processes. An important and novel such process in the area of micromanufacturing is solder jetting where microscopic solder droplets are dispensed for the attachment of microelectronic components. Despite the recent appearance of a few numerical studies focusing on the complex transient aspects of this process, no analogous experimental results have been reported to date to the best of our knowledge. Such a study is reported in this paper. Eutectic solder (63Sn37Pb) was melted to a preset superheat and used in a specially designed droplet generator to produce droplets with diameters in the range 50–100 mm. In a first series of experiments, the size, temperature, and impacting speed of the molten droplets were maintained constant. The primary variable was the temperature of the substrate that was controlled in the range from 48°C to 135°C. The dynamics of molten solder microdroplet impact and solidification on the substrate was investigated using a flash microscopy technique. The time for the completion of solidification from the moment of a solder droplet impact on the substrate varies between 150 ms and 350 ms. The dynamic interaction between the oscillation in the liquid region and the rapid advance of the solidification front was visualized, quantified, and presented in this paper. In a second series of experiments, the evolution of the wetting angle between the spreading drop and the substrate was recorded and analyzed. No quantitative agreement with Hoffman’s correlation for wetting was found. It was established that the wetting angle dynamics is strongly coupled with the evolution of the droplet free surface. Two successive regimes were distinguished during the spreading. The influence of the initial impact velocity and substrate temperature on the dynamics of the measured wetting angle was described in both regimes. To the best of our knowledge, this study presents the first published experimental results on the transient fluid dynamics and solidification of molten microdroplets impacting on a substrate at the abovementioned time and length scales that are directly relevant to the novel solder jetting technology. @S0022-1481~00!01403-1#
  • Dynamics,
  • mechanics,
  • temperature,
  • solders,
  • wetting,
  • solidification,
  • drops,
  • motion,
  • measurement,
  • osciliations,
  • shapes
Publication Date
April, 2000
Publisher Statement
Copyright 2000 ASME
Citation Information
Daniel Attinger, Z. Zhao and D. Poulikakos. "An Experimental Study of Molten Microdroplet Surface Deposition and Solidification: Transient Behavior and Wetting Angle Dynamics" Journal of Heat Transfer Vol. 122 Iss. 3 (2000)
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