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Triglyceride Recrystallized Phytosterols in Fat-Free Milk Improve Lipoprotein Profiles More Than Unmodified Free Phytosterols in Hypercholesterolemic Men and Women
Journal of the American College of Nutrition (2013)
  • Laura J. Kunces
  • Laura K. Cusack
  • Brian R. Kupchak
  • Brittanie M. Volk
  • Daniel Freidenreich, Rowan University
  • Juan C. Aristizabal
  • Catherine Saenz
  • Ruisong Pei
  • Yi Guo
  • Maria Luz Fernandez
  • Richard S. Bruno
  • Carl M. Maresh
  • William J. Kraemer
  • Andrzej Pronczuk
  • K. C. Hayes
  • Jeff S. Volek
Abstract
Objective: Foods incorporating plant sterols (PS) consistently decrease serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), although results vary depending on the PS form and food matrix. The objective was to study the effect of a novel triglyceride-recrystallized phystosterol (TRP) incorporated into fat-free milk on markers of cardiovascular risk compared to unmodified free sterols alone in the same fat-free milk.

Methods: Hypercholesterolemic men and women (n = 13 males/7 females; 56 ±10 years; body mass index 27.3 ±5.9 kg/m2) participated in 3 sequential 4-week phases of 480 mL milk consumption. During phase 1 (control) all subjects consumed 2% milk containing no PS, followed by phase 2 with fat-free milk containing free PS (2 g/d fPS) and phase 3 with fat-free milk with TRP (2 g/d). After each phase, determinations of lipoprotein cholesterol distribution, particle concentration via nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), apolipoproteins, inflammatory markers, and fat-soluble dietary antioxidants were made.

Results: Body mass, body composition, dietary energy and macronutrients, and physical activity were unaffected throughout the study. Compared to the control 2% milk, LDL-C was significantly (p < 0.05) decreased by fPS (−9.1%) and was further decreased by TRP (−15.4%); reductions with TRP were significantly greater. Total LDL particle concentration was decreased to a greater extent after TRP (−8.8%) than fPS (−4.8%; p < 0.05). Only TRP significantly decreased serum levels of apolipoprotein B (apoB; −6%), interleukin-8 (IL-8; −11%) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1; −19%). Plasma α- and γ-tocopherols and carotenoids, normalized to cholesterol, remained unchanged throughout the study with the exception that β-carotene was lowered by 18%.

Conclusion: In summary, TRP in fat-free milk may provide cardiovascular benefits beyond that of fPS by inducing more substantial decreases in LDL cholesterol and particle concentration, associated with declines in markers of vascular inflammation.
Keywords
  • phytosterols,
  • plasma cholesterol,
  • lipoprotein particle size
Publication Date
August, 2013
DOI
10.1080/07315724.2013.816597
Citation Information
Laura J. Kunces, Laura K. Cusack, Brian R. Kupchak, Brittanie M. Volk, et al.. "Triglyceride Recrystallized Phytosterols in Fat-Free Milk Improve Lipoprotein Profiles More Than Unmodified Free Phytosterols in Hypercholesterolemic Men and Women" Journal of the American College of Nutrition Vol. 32 Iss. 4 (2013) p. 234 - 242 ISSN: 0731-5724
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/daniel-freidenreich/8/