Natural resource exports such as oil, diamonds and copper provide opportunities to drive growth and human development. However, extraction of these commodities can also result in slow growth, poverty and conflict. This paper focuses on four questions. First, how does natural resource dependence impede economic and social progress? Second, how does lack of economic and social progress translate into violent conflict? Third, which economic policies lessen the risk of conflict? Fourth, what are the programmatic implications for UNDP?
By synthesizing country cases, this paper shows that resource-based countries face a higher risk of experiencing violent conflict because of increases in unemployment, inequalities and inadequate provision of social services, particularly education. Worsening economic and social conditions aggravate collective and private grievances and the breakdown in statesociety relations. These, in turn, fuel conflict.
- Resource curse; Resource dependency; natural resources; minerals for development
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/cosmas_ochieng/11/