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Molecular genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii from Central and South America revealed high diversity within and between populations
Infection, Genetics and Evolution (2012)
  • C. Rajendran
  • Chunlei Su, University of Tennessee, Knoxville
  • J. P. Dubey
Recent population studies revealed that a few major clonal lineages of Toxoplasma gondii dominate in different geographical regions. The Type II and III lineages are widespread in all continents and dominate in Europe, Africa and North America. In addition, the type 12 lineage is the most common type in wildlife in North America, the Africa 1 and 3 are among the major types in Africa, and ToxoDB PCR–RFLP #9 is the major type in China. Overall the T. gondii strains are more diverse in South America than any other regions. Here, we analyzed 164 T. gondii isolates from three countries in Central America (Guatemala, Nicaragua, Costa Rica), from one country in Caribbean (Grenada) and five countries from South America (Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, Chile, and Argentina). The multilocous polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP) based genotyping of 11 polymorphic markers (SAG1, SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, L358, PK1, C22-8, C29-2 and Apico) were applied to 148 free-range chicken (Gallus domesticus) isolates and 16 isolates from domestic cats (Felis catus) in Colombia; 42 genotypes were identified. Linkage disequilibrium analysis indicated more frequent genetic recombination in populations of Nicaragua and Colombia, and to a lesser degree in populations of Costa Rica and Argentina. Bayesian structural analysis identified at least three genetic clusters, and phylogenetic network analysis identified four major groups. The ToxoDB PCR–RFLP #7, Type III and II were major lineages identified from Central and South America, with high frequencies of the closely related ToxoDB PCR–RFLP #7 and Type III lineages. Taken together, this study revealed high diversity within and between T. gondii populations in Central and South America, and the dominance of Type III and its closely related ToxoDB PCR–RFLP #7 lineages. DOI:
  • Toxoplasma gondii,
  • Chicken (Gallus domesticus),
  • Cat (Felis catus),
  • Genetic characterization,
  • Genetic diversity,
  • Population genetics
Publication Date
March, 2012
Citation Information
C. Rajendran, Chunlei Su and J. P. Dubey. "Molecular genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii from Central and South America revealed high diversity within and between populations" Infection, Genetics and Evolution Vol. 12 Iss. 2 (2012)
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