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Contribution to Book
Understanding and reducing the anthropogenic heat emission
Urban Climate Mitigation Techniques (2016)
  • Nektarios Chrysoulakis
  • C.S.B. Grimmond
Anthropogenic heat emission includes heat generated by the combustion process in vehicles, heat emitted by industrial processes, the conduction of heat through building walls, or emitted directly into the atmosphere by air-conditioning systems and the metabolic heat produced by humans. The magnitude of the anthropogenic heat flux is highly dependent on the spatial scale at which it is estimated. In cities, peak values are associated with large buildings and busy roads. In terms of its temporal variability, the diurnal profile of total anthropogenic heating has local peaks in the early-morning and late-afternoon, corresponding to peaks in transportation and building energy use. Anthropogenic heat flux is difficult to determine because of its strongly varying pattern and because it is very difficult to measure directly. There are three general approaches to estimate the anthropogenic heat flux: inventories, residual of the urban energy budget and building energy models. Mitigation techniques aim to balance the thermal budget of cities by increasing thermal losses and decreasing the corresponding gains. Therefore parameters (relative to buildings and urban design) and practices (relative to traffic) can be determined in each city, and technological solutions may be proposed on their modification towards reducing the anthropogenic heat. The focus of this chapter is the anthropogenic heat emission, its quantification and significance and opportunities to moderate its effect on the urban climate.
  • Anthropogenic Heat Flux,
  • Urabn Ener4gy Budget,
  • Mitigation of Urban Heat Stress
Publication Date
Santamouris, M. and Kolokotsa, D.
Routledge, Taylor & Francis
ISBN 978–0‐415–71213–2
Citation Information
Chrysoulakis, N. and Grimmond, C.S.B., 2016. Understanding and reducing the anthropogenic heat emission. In: Santamouris, M. and Kolokotsa, D. (Eds)., 2016. Urban Climate Mitigation Techniques. Routledge, Taylor & Francis, London. ISBN 978–0‐415–71213–2, pp. 27 - 39.