The etiology of erectile dysfunction (ED) is multi-factorial. This paper examines the association between ED, testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS) and metabolic syndrome (MS) in Malaysian men in an urban setting. One thousand and forty-six men aged >= 40 years from Subang Jaya, Malaysia were randomly selected from an electoral-roll list. The men completed questionnaires that included: socio-demographic data, self-reported medical problems and the International Index of erectile function (IIEF-5). Physical examination and the following biochemical tests were performed: lipid profile, fasting blood glucose (FBG) and total testosterone. The response rate was 62.8% and the mean age of men was 55.8 +/- 8.4 (41-93) years. Ethnic distribution was Chinese, 48.9%; Malay, 34.5%; Indian, 14.8%. The prevalence of moderate. severe ED was 20.0%, while 16.1% of men had TDS (< 10.4 nmol/L) and 31.3% of men had MS. Indian and Malay men were significantly more likely to have ED (p = 0.001), TDS (p < 0.001) and MS (p < 0.001) than the Chinese. Multivariate regression analysis showed that elevated blood pressure, elevated FBG, low high-density lipoprotein and heart disease were predictors of ED while all MS components were independently associated with TDS. Malay and Indian men have a higher disease burden compared to Chinese men and were more likely to suffer with ED, TDS and MS. MS components were closely related to TDS and ED.
- male sexual dysfunction testosterone deficiency metabolic syndrome Asian men culture prevalence aging male
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