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Parents as distraction coaches during i.v. insertion: a randomized study
Journal of pain and symptom management
  • Charmaine Kleiber, University of Iowa
  • Martha Craft-Rosenberg, University of Iowa
  • D. C. Harper
Document Type
Peer Reviewed
Publication Date
NLM Title Abbreviation
J Pain Symptom Manage
PubMed ID
This study investigated the effectiveness of a brief Distraction Education intervention for parents prior to their preschool children's medical procedures. Forty-four preschool children with chronic non-life-threatening conditions were having intravenous catheters (IVs) placed for medical tests. Parent-child dyads were randomized into two groups. The experimental group received Distraction Education prior to IV insertion; the control group received standard care. Data were analyzed for two phases of the IV procedure. Phase 1 was the preparation for needle insertion; Phase 2 began with needle insertion. Experimental group parents used significantly more distraction than did control group parents during both phases (P < 0.001). There were no group differences for child behavioral distress or self-report of pain. There was a trend toward a group by phase interaction for behavioral distress (P = 0.07); more experimental group children showed decreased behavioral distress over time (from phase 1 to phase 2) than did control group children (P = 0.02).
  • Adult,
  • Attention,
  • Catheterization,
  • Peripheral/adverse effects/psychology,
  • Child,
  • Child Psychology,
  • Child,
  • Preschool,
  • Female,
  • Humans,
  • Male,
  • Pain/etiology/psychology,
  • Parent-Child Relations,
  • Parents/education
Published Article/Book Citation
Journal of pain and symptom management, 22:4 (2001) pp.851-861.
Citation Information
Charmaine Kleiber, Martha Craft-Rosenberg and D. C. Harper. "Parents as distraction coaches during i.v. insertion: a randomized study" Journal of pain and symptom management Vol. 22 Iss. 4 (2001) p. 851 - 861 ISSN: 0885-3924
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