The purpose of this article is to present a model of factors that may influence a child's response to a painful procedure when parents are distraction coaches during the procedure. Nonpharmacological interventions, in particular, distraction, and parents as coaches for their children during procedures are discussed. A conceptual model is presented that illustrates the multiple factors and their possible relationships. A selected review of studies is provided that supports the inclusion of these factors in the model. The model and literature review focus on three major areas: characteristics of the child, characteristics of the parent, and procedural variables. The model presented is currently being tested in a large multisite study on the use of distraction during intravenous line insertion.
- Child Psychology,
- Pain/prevention & control/psychology,
- Parent-Child Relations,
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/charmaine_kleiber/52/