Effects of distraction on children's pain and distress during medical procedures: a meta-analysisNursing research
NLM Title AbbreviationNurs Res
AbstractBACKGROUND: It is difficult to determine the usefulness of distraction to decrease children's distress behavior and pain during medical procedures because many studies use very small samples and report inconsistent findings. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the mean effect sizes across studies for the effects of distraction on young children's distress behavior and self-reported pain during medical procedures. METHOD: Hunter and Schmidt's (1990) procedures were used to analyze 16 studies (total n = 491) on children's distress behavior and 10 studies (total n = 535) on children's pain. RESULTS: For distress behavior, the mean effect size was 0.33 (+/-0.17), with 74% of the variance accounted for by sampling and measurement error. For pain, the mean effect size was 0.62 (+/-0.42) with 35% of the variance accounted for. Analysis of studies on pain that limited the sample to children 7 years of age or younger (total n = 286) increased the amount of explained variance to 60%. CONCLUSIONS: Distraction had a positive effect on children's distress behavior across the populations represented in this study. The effect of distraction on children's self-reported pain is influenced by moderator variables. Controlling for age and type of painful procedure significantly increased the amount of explained variance, but there are other unidentified moderators at work.
- Analysis of Variance,
- Bias (Epidemiology),
- Effect Modifiers (Epidemiology),
- Pain/diagnosis/etiology/prevention & control,
- Pain Measurement,
- Relaxation Therapy/standards,
- Reproducibility of Results,
- Research Design/standards,
- Sample Size,
- Psychological/diagnosis/etiology/prevention & control
Published Article/Book CitationNursing research, 48:1 (1999) pp.44-49.
Citation InformationCharmaine Kleiber and D. C. Harper. "Effects of distraction on children's pain and distress during medical procedures: a meta-analysis" Nursing research Vol. 48 Iss. 1 (1999) p. 44 - 49 ISSN: 0029-6562
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/charmaine_kleiber/28/