The core-annulus structure is essential to the modeling and optimization of riser reactors such as used in Fluid Catalytic Cracking. This paper presents results of measurements taken with various probes in a pilot plant and in an industrial riser. The instantaneous probe signals were analyzed with sophisticated signal analysis methods based on the detection of cycles and the determination of the correlation dimension.
In a pilot plant riser, a core-annulus structure was identified with optical and momentum probe measurements. Cycle analysis of the optical probe measurements showed that the annulus was unstable: its thickness fluctuated with an average cycle time of 0.3 s. There were waves at the core-annulus boundary. In an industrial riser, a similar core-annulus structure could be identified with temperature and momentum probe measurements. Local temperature measurements are much easier to perform in an industrial riser than momentum probe measurements but can provide, with cycle analysis, the location of the core-annulus transition. Analysis of the momentum probe and temperature signals showed that the thickness of the wavy transition layer between core and annulus was about the same in the pilot plant and the industrial riser, meaning that the relative range of fluctuations in annulus thickness was much smaller in the larger industrial riser.
A model was developed to predict the time-averaged transition between core and annulus. This model, which had been successfully used to predict the annulus thickness in dilute-phase vertical pneumatic transport lines, assumes that the annulus thickness is such that the riser pressure drop is minimized. Measurements and model predictions were in good agreement.
- regime transition,
- signal analysis
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/cedric_briens/15/