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Application of Principal Component and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis to Classify Different Spices Based on In Vitro Antioxidant Activity and Individual Polyphenolic Antioxidant Compounds
  • M. Hossain, Dublin Institute of Technology
  • A. Patras, Teagasc
  • Catherine Barry-Ryan, Dublin Institute of Technology
  • Ana Belen Martin-Diana, Dublin Institute of Technology
  • N. Brunton, Teagasc
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This item is available under a Creative Commons License for non-commercial use only
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Journal of Functional Food, Vol. 3 (2011) pp.179-189


This study investigated the variations in antioxidant profiles between spices using pattern recognition tools; classification was achieved based on the results of global antioxidant activity assays (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH], oxygen radical absorbance capacity [ORAC], ferric reducing antioxidant power [FRAP], microsomal lipid peroxidation [MLP] and 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) [ABTS]), levels of different polyphenolic compounds (gallic acid [GA], carnosol [CAR], carnosic acid [CRA], caffeic acid [CA], rosmarinic acid [RA], luteolin-7-O-glucoside [LOG], apigenin-7-O-glucoside [APOG] and total phenols [TP]) of spices namely rosemary, oregano, marjoram, sage, basil, thyme, fennel, celery, cumin and parsley, commonly consumed in Ireland were analyzed. Rosemary showed the highest antioxidant activity measured by the DPPH (11.02 g Trolox/g DW) assay, whereas oregano had the highest activity in the ORAC (28.31 g Trolox/g DW) test. By contrast, parsley showed the lowest antioxidant activity in both of the assays. Interrelationships of these assays and the spices were investigated by principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). PCA revealed that the first two components represented 73% of the total variability in antioxidant activity and different antioxidant groups. HCA classified samples into four main groups on the basis of the measured parameters.
Citation Information
Hossain, M., Patras, A., Barry-Ryan, C., Martin-Diana, A., Brunton, N. (2011) Application of principal component and hierarchical cluster analysis to classify different spices based on in vitro antioxidant activity and individual polyphenolic antioxidant compounds. Journal of Functional Food, 3 (3), pp.179-189. doi:10.1016/j.jff.2011.03.010