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Changes in Waist Circumference and Body Mass Index in the US CARDIA Cohort: Fixed-Effects Associations with Self-Reported Experiences of Racial/Ethnic Discrimination
Quantitative Health Sciences Publications and Presentations
  • Timothy J. Cunningham, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  • Lisa F. Berkman, Harvard School of Public Health
  • Ichiro Kawachi, Harvard School of Public Health
  • David R. Jacobs, Jr., University of Minnesota
  • Teresa E. Seeman, University of California
  • Catarina I. Kiefe, University of Massachusetts Medical School
  • Steven L. Gortmaker, Harvard School of Public Health
UMMS Affiliation
Department of Quantitative Health Sciences
Publication Date
3-1-2013
Document Type
Article
Subjects
African Americans; Body Mass Index; European Continental Ancestry Group; Prejudice; Racism; Epidemiologic Factors; Waist Circumference
Abstract
Prior studies examining the association between self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination and obesity have had mixed results and primarily been cross-sectional. This study tests the hypothesis that an increase in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination predicts gains in waist circumference and body mass index in Black and White women and men over eight years. In race/ethnicity- and gender-stratified models, this study examined whether change in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination predicts changes in waist circumference and body mass index over time using a fixed-effects regression approach in SAS statistical software, providing control for both measured and unmeasured time-invariant covariates. Between 1992-93 and 2000-01, self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination decreased among 843 Black women (75% to 73%), 601 Black men (80% to 77%), 893 White women (30% to 23%) and 856 White men (28% to 23%). In fixed-effects regression models, controlling for all time-invariant covariates, social desirability bias, and changes in education and parity (women only) over time, an increase in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination over time was significantly associated with an increase in waist circumference (beta=1.09, 95% CI: 0.00-2.19, p=0.05) and an increase in body mass index (beta=0.67, 95% CI: 0.19-1.16, p=0.007) among Black women. No associations were observed among Black men and White women and men. These findings suggest that an increase in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination may be associated with increases in waist circumference and body mass index among Black women over time.
Keywords
  • UMCCTS funding
Comments

Citation: Cunningham TJ, Berkman LF, Kawachi I, Jacobs DR Jr, Seeman TE, Kiefe CI, Gortmaker SL. Changes in waist circumference and body mass index in the US CARDIA cohort: fixed-effects associations with self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination. J Biosoc Sci. 2013 Mar;45(2):267-78. doi:10.1017/S0021932012000429. Link to article on publisher's site

Related Resources
Link to Article in PubMed
Citation Information
Timothy J. Cunningham, Lisa F. Berkman, Ichiro Kawachi, David R. Jacobs, et al.. "Changes in Waist Circumference and Body Mass Index in the US CARDIA Cohort: Fixed-Effects Associations with Self-Reported Experiences of Racial/Ethnic Discrimination" Vol. 45 Iss. 2 (2013) ISSN: 0021-9320 (Linking)
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/catarina_kiefe/207/