Skip to main content
Article
Changes in Waist Circumference and Body Mass Index in the US CARDIA Cohort: Fixed-Effects Associations with Self-Reported Experiences of Racial/Ethnic Discrimination
Quantitative Health Sciences Publications and Presentations
  • Timothy J. Cunningham, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  • Lisa F. Berkman, Harvard School of Public Health
  • Ichiro Kawachi, Harvard School of Public Health
  • David R. Jacobs, Jr., University of Minnesota
  • Teresa E. Seeman, University of California
  • Catarina I. Kiefe, University of Massachusetts Medical School
  • Steven L. Gortmaker, Harvard School of Public Health
UMMS Affiliation
Department of Quantitative Health Sciences
Date
3-1-2013
Document Type
Article
Medical Subject Headings
African Americans; Body Mass Index; European Continental Ancestry Group; Prejudice; Racism; Epidemiologic Factors; Waist Circumference
Abstract

Prior studies examining the association between self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination and obesity have had mixed results and primarily been cross-sectional. This study tests the hypothesis that an increase in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination predicts gains in waist circumference and body mass index in Black and White women and men over eight years. In race/ethnicity- and gender-stratified models, this study examined whether change in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination predicts changes in waist circumference and body mass index over time using a fixed-effects regression approach in SAS statistical software, providing control for both measured and unmeasured time-invariant covariates. Between 1992-93 and 2000-01, self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination decreased among 843 Black women (75% to 73%), 601 Black men (80% to 77%), 893 White women (30% to 23%) and 856 White men (28% to 23%). In fixed-effects regression models, controlling for all time-invariant covariates, social desirability bias, and changes in education and parity (women only) over time, an increase in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination over time was significantly associated with an increase in waist circumference (beta=1.09, 95% CI: 0.00-2.19, p=0.05) and an increase in body mass index (beta=0.67, 95% CI: 0.19-1.16, p=0.007) among Black women. No associations were observed among Black men and White women and men. These findings suggest that an increase in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination may be associated with increases in waist circumference and body mass index among Black women over time.

Comments

Citation: Cunningham TJ, Berkman LF, Kawachi I, Jacobs DR Jr, Seeman TE, Kiefe CI, Gortmaker SL. Changes in waist circumference and body mass index in the US CARDIA cohort: fixed-effects associations with self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination. J Biosoc Sci. 2013 Mar;45(2):267-78. doi:10.1017/S0021932012000429. Link to article on publisher's site

Related Resources
Link to Article in PubMed
Keywords
  • UMCCTS funding
Citation Information
Timothy J. Cunningham, Lisa F. Berkman, Ichiro Kawachi, David R. Jacobs, et al.. "Changes in Waist Circumference and Body Mass Index in the US CARDIA Cohort: Fixed-Effects Associations with Self-Reported Experiences of Racial/Ethnic Discrimination" Vol. 45 Iss. 2 (2013) ISSN: 0021-9320 (Linking)
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/catarina_kiefe/207/