Positive self-views are known to benefit individuals. However, little attention has been paid to the means by which self-esteem is attained and the consequences associated with different paths to high self-esteem. The current studies suggest that positive self-esteem attained through self-reflection is associated with performance benefits, but that positive self-esteem attained by affiliation with successful others should not be associated with performance benefits. Two studies show that while both experiences similarly boost global self-esteem, only self-reflection has positive effects on performance.
- temporal comparison,
- social comparison,
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