Skip to main content
Antilisterial effects of gravinol-s grape seed extract at low levels in aqueous media and its potential application as a produce wash.
Journal of Food Protection
  • Bledar Bisha, Iowa State University
  • Natalia Weinsetel, United States Department of Agriculture
  • Byron F. Brehm-Stecher, Iowa State University
  • Aubrey F. Mendonca, Iowa State University
Document Type
Publication Date
Grape seed extract (GSE) is a rich source of proanthocyanidins, a class of natural antioxidants reported to have wide-ranging bioactivity as anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, and antimicrobial agents. The ability of GSE to rapidly inactivate Listeria monocytogenes in vitro and the generally recognized as safe status of GSE make this extract an attractive candidate for control of Listeria in or on foods. Previously, GSE has been used at relatively high concentrations (1%) in complex food matrices and in combination with other antimicrobials. We sought to characterize the antilisterial effects of a commercial GSE preparation (Gravinol-S) alone at much lower concentrations (0.00015 to 0.125%) in aqueous solution and to test its possible use as an antimicrobial wash for fresh produce surfaces. Based on broth microdilution tests, the MICs of GSE against L. monocytogenes Scott A and Listeria innocua ATCC 33090 were as low as 50 and 78 mg ml21, respectively. GSE was evaluated in 0.85% saline against live cells of L. innocua via flow cytometry, using propidium iodide as a probe for membrane integrity. At sub-MICs and after only 2 min of exposure, treatment with GSE caused rapid permeabilization and clumping of L. innocua, results that we confirmed for L. monocytogenes using fluorescence microscopy and Live/Dead staining. At higher concentrations (0.125%), GSE reduced viable cell counts for L. monocytogenes by approximately 2 log units within 2 min on tomato surfaces. These results suggest the potential for GSE as a natural control of Listeria spp. on low-complexity foods such as tomatoes.

This article is from Journal of Food Protection 73(2): 266-273. Posted with permission.

Works produced by employees of the U.S. Government as part of their official duties are not copyrighted within the U.S. The content of this document is not copyrighted
Copyright Owner
International Association for Food Protection
File Format
Citation Information
Bledar Bisha, Natalia Weinsetel, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher and Aubrey F. Mendonca. "Antilisterial effects of gravinol-s grape seed extract at low levels in aqueous media and its potential application as a produce wash." Journal of Food Protection Vol. 73 Iss. 2 (2010) p. 266 - 273
Available at: