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Contribution to Book
The instrumental period
Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)
  • Robert Bindschadler
  • Eberhard Fahrbach
  • Jim Fastook
  • Jaume Forcarda
  • Josep-Maria Gili
  • Nancy Bertler
  • D M Bergstrom
  • Mauro Gugliemin
  • Julian Gutt
  • Hartmut Hellmer
  • F Hennion
  • Roberto Bargagli
  • Carlo Barbante
  • Karen Heywood
  • Dominic Hodgson
  • David Holland
  • Sungmin Hong
  • Angus Atkinson
  • Rob Arthern
  • Byron Adams
  • A H.L Huiskes
  • Steve Chown
  • Enrique Isla
  • Stan Jacobs
  • Anna Jones
  • David Bromwich
  • Claude Boutron
  • Josifino Comiso
  • Pete Convey
  • Alison Cook
  • Guido di Prisco
  • James Bockheim
  • Mark Stevens
  • Colin Summerhayes
  • Phil Trathan
  • John A Turner
  • Kees van der Veen
  • David Vaughan
  • Mike Meredith
  • Paul Mayewski
  • Gareth Marshall
  • Cinzia Verde
  • Andrew Lenton
  • Howard Roscoe
  • Sharon A Robinson, University of Wollongong
  • Steve Rintoul
  • Hans-Otto Portner
  • Sergio Rossi
  • Ted Scambos
  • Jon Shanklin
  • Lloyd Peck
  • Nicholas Metzl
  • Andrew Monaghan
  • David Webb
  • Christian Wiencke
  • Covadonga Orejas
  • Philip Woodworth
  • Tony Worby
  • Roger Worland
  • Kevin K Newsham, Natural Environment Research Council
  • Alberto Naveira-Garabato
  • Takashi Yamanouchi
  • Victor Smetacek
  • Kevin Speer
Publication Date
Publication Details

Adams, B et al, The Instrumental Period, chapter 4 in Antarctic climate change and the environment, Scott Polar Research Institute, Lensfield Road, Cambridge, UK: Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, 183-298.

Additional Publication Information
ISBN: 9780948277221
The instrumental period began with the first voyages to the Southern Ocean during the Seventeenth and Eighteenth centuries when scientists such as Edmund Halley made observations of quantities such as geomagnetism. During the early voyages information was collected on the meteorological conditions across the Southern Ocean, ocean conditions, the sea ice extent and the terrestrial and marine biology. The continent itself was discovered in 1820, although the collection of data was sporadic through the remainder of the Nineteenth Century and it was not possible to venture into the inhospitable interior of Antarctica. At the start of the Twentieth Century stations were first operated year-round and this really began the period of organised scientific investigation in the Antarctic. Most of these stations were not operated for long periods, which is a handicap when trying to investigate climate change over the last century.
Citation Information
Robert Bindschadler, Eberhard Fahrbach, Jim Fastook, Jaume Forcarda, et al.. "The instrumental period" (2009) p. 183 - 298
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