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Did Bush Democratize the Middle East? The Effects of External–Internal Linkages
Political Science Quarterly (2013)
  • Bruce Gilley, Portland State University
The article discusses the foreign policy of former U.S. president George W. Bush, particularly whether his policies democratized the Middle East during the early 21st century. It discusses the results of what the article calls Bush's Freedom Agenda in the Middle East, external factors that contribute to democratic change, and the benefits and drawbacks to Bush's Freedom Agenda, particularly strengthening support for authoritarian governments in the Middle East yet also motivating nationalist sentiment against the U.S. The article examines the Bush administration's diplomatic and rhetorical efforts following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks against the U.S., the Middle East Partnership Initiative, and political change in Middle East nations such as Egypt, Lebanon, and Syria. It also discusses the Iraq and Afghan wars.
  • Politics -- United States,
  • Middle East -- Politics and government -- 21st Century
Publication Date
December, 2013
Publisher Statement
Copyright (2013) Wiley
Citation Information
Bruce Gilley. "Did Bush Democratize the Middle East? The Effects of External–Internal Linkages" Political Science Quarterly Vol. 128 Iss. 4 (2013)
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