Barnacle encrustation negatively influenced every aspect of swimming in the scallop Chlamys hastata measured in this study. Scallops swam significantly longer, travelled further and attained greater elevation once epibiotic barnacles had been removed. Shell morphometry of barnacle-encrusted scallops was similar to shells of unencrusted scallops. Specifically, shell length was positively allometric with shell height and shell mass was negatively allometric. However, adductor muscle mass scaled isometrically to shell height, in contrast to unencrusted scallops. In the laboratory, the drag coefficient (Cd) of barnacle-encrusted scallops decreased after barnacle removal, in contrast to sponge-encrusted scallops in which no decrease in Cd was detected when the sponge was removed from the scallop's valves. Furthermore, scallops swimming with barnacle encrustation required more energy than did unencrusted scallops. Although there was no significant difference in aerobic energy expenditure between swimming barnacle-encrusted and unencrusted scallops, differences in anaerobic energy expenditure were detected. Specifically, barnacle-encrusted scallops required more arginine phosphate than unencrusted scallops to swim to exhaustion although octopine levels were similar. Thus, barnacle encrustation dramatically decreased a scallop's ability to swim, partly by increasing the drag coefficient experienced by the scallop and the energy required for swimming.
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/brian_bingham/27/