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A Scaffolding Framework to Support the Construction of Evidence-Based Arguments among Middle School Students
Educational Technology Research and Development
  • Brian Robert Belland, Utah State University
  • Krista D. Glazewski, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces
  • Jennifer C. Richardson, Purdue University
Document Type
Springer Verlag
Publication Date

Problem-based learning (PBL) is an instructional approach in which students in small groups engage in an authentic, ill-structured problem, and must (1) define, generate and pursue learning issues to understand the problem, (2) develop a possible solution, (3) provide evidence to support their solution, and (4) present their solution and the evidence that supports it (Barrows, How to design a problem-based curriculum for the preclinical years. Springer Publishing, New York, 1985). However, research has shown that novice problem-solvers and learners without deep content knowledge have difficulty developing strong evidence-based arguments (Krajcik et al., J Learn Sci 7:313–350, 1998a; Reiser, J Lear Sci 13(3):273–304, 2004). In this paper, we discuss the components of (e.g., claims and evidence) and processes of making (e.g., define problem and make claim) evidence-based arguments. Furthermore, we review various scaffolding models designed to help students perform various tasks associated with creating evidence-based arguments (e.g., link claims to evidence) and present guidelines for the development of computer-based scaffolds to help middle school students build evidence-based arguments.

Originally published by Springer Verlag. HTML fulltext available through remote link. Publisher's PDF available through Educational Technology Research and Development.
Citation Information
Belland, B. R., Glazewski, K. D., & Richardson, J. C. (2008). A scaffolding framework to support the construction of evidence-based arguments among middle school students1. Educational Technology Research and Development, 56, 401-422. [ISI journal; Acceptance rate: 8%; Impact factor: 0.695]