Basis for the water supply in oil, gas and chemical industries is the availability of raw water from wells or surface water and their subsequent treatment as cooling water and/or as supplementary water for the cooling water and water/steam circuit. During freshwater cooling, the water must be freed from pollution which occurs in the form of floating or suspended materials. No matter where your makeup water comes from, it may contain contaminants that can foul or damage downstream equipment and affect the final process water quality
Bahadori, A, Clark, M & Boyd, B 2013, 'Raw water systems', in A Bahadori, M Clark, B Boyd, Essentials of water systems design in the oil, gas, and chemical processing industries, SpringerLink, Berlin, Germany, pp. 41-51.
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