Skip to main content
Article
Gender and the active smoking and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein relation in late adolescence
Journal of Lipid Research (2014)
  • Beth Hands, The University of Notre Dame Australia
  • Chi Le-Ha, The University of Western Australia
  • Lawrence Beilin, The University of Western Australia
  • Sally Burrows, The University of Western Australia
  • Wendy Oddy, The University of Western Australia
  • Trevor Mori, The University of Western Australia
Abstract
C-reactive protein (CRP), smoking, and oral contraceptive (OC) use are associated with CVD risk in adults. This study examines the effect of smoking on high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) levels, and the interactive effects of sex and OC use on this relationship in an adolescent cohort. A total of 1,050 adolescents (mean age 17 ± 0.25 years) from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study had anthropometric, lifestyle, and metabolic measures recorded. The association between smoking status and log-transformed hs-CRP was analyzed using multivariable Tobit linear regression models, with adjustment for adiposity, lifestyle, and early-life confounders. A three-level variable (girls not using OCs, girls using OCs, and boys) was employed to assess the interactive effects of sex, OC use, and smoking. Smoking associated with higher hs-CRP levels in girls not using OCs (b = 0.571; P = 0.001), but not in girls using OCs (b = −0.117; P = 0.598) or in boys (b = 0.183; P = 0.2). OC use in nonsmoking girls was the strongest factor associated with higher hs-CRP levels (b = 1.189; P < 0.001). This study has demonstrated a more robust effect of smoking on hs-CRP levels in girls not using OCs compared with boys. The findings may explain why CVD risk conferred by smoking is higher in women than in men.
Publication Date
2014
DOI
10.1194/jlr.P045369
Citation Information
Le-Ha, C., Beilin, L., Burrows, S., Oddy, W., Hands, B., and Mori, T. (2014). Gender and the active smoking and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein relation in late adolescence. Journal of Lipid Research, 55(4), 758-764. DOI: 10.1194/jlr.P045369