Gender difference in the relationship between passive smoking exposure and HDL-cholesterol levels in late adolescenceJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (2013)
High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are influenced by gender and by genetic and environmental factors. We aimed to assess the impact of passive smoking exposure since birth on HDL-C levels of nonsmoking adolescents at age 17 years and to determine whether there was a gender difference in the relationship between smoking exposure and HDL-C.
A total of 804 nonsmoking adolescents with biochemical, anthropometric, and lifestyle data from a cohort of 1754 adolescents (mean age, 17 ± 0.25 y) of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study had data of maternal smoking during pregnancy and smoking exposure in the household over 17 years. HDL-C was analyzed using multivariable linear regression, with adjustment for early-life, adiposity, and current lifestyle confounders.
HDL-C levels were significantly lower in girls exposed to passive smoking compared to those not exposed (regression coefficient b = -0.09 [95% confidence interval, -0.15, -0.03]); this was not observed in boys (b = 0.02 [95% confidence interval, -0.04, 0.08]), with a significant sex interaction P = .009. The effects of passive smoking in girls persisted after adjusting for oral contraceptive use.
This study has shown a gender difference in the relationship between passive smoking exposure since birth and HDL-C in late adolescence. Exposure to passive smoking in girls could have adverse consequences on their risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. These findings reinforce the need for future public health measures to reduce children's exposure to passive smoking.
Citation InformationLe-Ha, C., Beilin, L., Burrows, S., Huang, R., Oddy, W., Hands, B., and Mori, T. (2013). Gender difference in the relationship between passive smoking exposure and HDL-cholesterol levels in late adolescence. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 98(5), 2126-2135. DOI: 10.1210/jc.2013-1016