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Coral Reef Recovery in the Galapagos Islands: The Northernmost Islands (Darwin and Wenman)
Coral Reefs
  • Peter W. Glynn, University of Miami
  • Bernhard Riegl, (editor), Nova Southeastern University
  • Samuel J. Purkis, Nova Southeastern University
  • Jeremy Kerr, Nova Southeastern University
  • Tyler B. Smith, University of the Virgin Islands
Document Type
Article
Publication Date
6-1-2015
Keywords
  • Galapagos coral recovery,
  • Reef accretion,
  • ENSO thermal bleaching,
  • Echinoid bioerosion
Abstract
The remote northernmost Galápagos Islands, Darwin and Wenman, exhibited well-developed coral communities in 1975, which were severely degraded during the 1982–1983 El Niño warming event. Mapping of the coral reef at Darwin, herein Wellington Reef, shows it presently to be the largest known structural reef in the Galápagos. It consists of numerous 1- to 3-m-high Porites framework towers or stacks and overlies a carbonate (coral/calcareous sediments) basement. Pre-disturbance Wellington Reef was constructed chiefly by Porites lobata and Pocillopora elegans, and Wenman coral cover was dominated by Pavona clavus and Porites lobata. Subsequent surveys in 2012 have demonstrated robust recovery in spite of ENSO thermal shock events, involving both high and low stressful temperatures that have caused tissue bleaching and mortality. No losses of coral species have been observed. Radiocarbon dating of 1- to 3-m-high poritid framework stacks, from their peaks to bases, revealed modern ages of up to 690 yr. Incremental stack growth rates ranged from 0.15–0.39 to 1.04–2.40 cm yr−1. The former are equivalent to framework accretion rates of 1.5–3.9 m Kyr−1, the latter to coral skeletal growth rates of 1.0–2.4 cm yr−1. Coral recovery in the central and southern Galápagos has been nonexistent to low compared with the northern islands, due chiefly to much higher population densities and destructive grazing pressure of the echinoid Eucidaris galapagensis. Thus, coral reef resistance to ENSO perturbations and recovery potential in the Galápagos are influenced by echinoid bioerosion that varies significantly among islands.
Comments

©Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Additional Comments
NSF grant #: OCE-0526361
ORCID ID
0000-0002-6003-9324
ResearcherID
F-8807-2011; B-8552-2013
DOI
10.1007/s00338-015-1280-4
Citation Information
Peter W. Glynn, Bernhard Riegl, Samuel J. Purkis, Jeremy Kerr, et al.. "Coral Reef Recovery in the Galapagos Islands: The Northernmost Islands (Darwin and Wenman)" Coral Reefs Vol. 34 Iss. 2 (2015) p. 421 - 436 ISSN: 0722-4028
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/bernhard-riegl/37/