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Three-dimensional nonlinear evolution ofequatorial ionospheric spread-F bubbles
Geophysical Research Letters (2003)
  • M. J. Keskinen
  • S. L. Ossakow
  • Bela G. Fejer, Utah State University
[1] Using numerical simulation techniques, we present the first study of the three-dimensional nonlinear evolution of an equatorial spread-F bubble. The background ionosphere used to initialize the bubble evolution is computed using a time-dependent first-principles equatorial plasma fountain model together with a prereversal enhancement vertical drift model. We find that finite parallel conductivity effects slow down both the linear and nonlinear bubble evolution compared to the two-dimensional evolution. In addition we find that bubble-like structures with extremely sharp density gradients can be generated off the equator at equatorial anomaly latitudes in agreement with recent observations.
  • Three dimensional,
  • nonlinear,
  • evolution,
  • equator,
  • ionosphere,
  • spread F,
  • bubbles
Publication Date
August 1, 2003
Publisher Statement
Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union. DOI: 10.1029/2003GL017418
Citation Information
Keskinen, M. J., S. L. Ossakow, and B. G. Fejer, Three-dimensional nonlinear evolution of equatorial ionospheric spread-F bubbles, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1855, doi: 10.1029/2003GL017418, 2003.