Three-dimensional nonlinear evolution ofequatorial ionospheric spread-F bubblesGeophysical Research Letters (2003)
Abstract Using numerical simulation techniques, we present the first study of the three-dimensional nonlinear evolution of an equatorial spread-F bubble. The background ionosphere used to initialize the bubble evolution is computed using a time-dependent first-principles equatorial plasma fountain model together with a prereversal enhancement vertical drift model. We find that finite parallel conductivity effects slow down both the linear and nonlinear bubble evolution compared to the two-dimensional evolution. In addition we find that bubble-like structures with extremely sharp density gradients can be generated off the equator at equatorial anomaly latitudes in agreement with recent observations.
- Three dimensional,
- spread F,
Publication DateAugust 1, 2003
Citation InformationKeskinen, M. J., S. L. Ossakow, and B. G. Fejer, Three-dimensional nonlinear evolution of equatorial ionospheric spread-F bubbles, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1855, doi: 10.1029/2003GL017418, 2003.