Skip to main content
Confrontation vs. withdrawal: Cultural differences in responses to threats to honor
Group Processes and Intergroup Relations (2013)
  • Susan E Cross, Iowa State University
  • Ayse K Uskul, University of Kent
  • Berna Gercek-Swing, Iowa State University
  • Zeynep Sunbay
  • Bilge Ataca, Bogazici University
This study compares evaluations by members of an honor culture (Turkey) and a dignity culture (northern USA) of honor threat scenarios, in which a target was the victim of either a rude affront or a false accusation, and the target chose to withdraw or confront the attacker. Turkish participants were more likely than American participants to evaluate positively the person who withdrew from the rude affront and the person who confronted the false accusation. Participants in both societies perceived that others in their society would endorse confrontation more than withdrawal in both types of scenarios, but this effect was larger for Turkish than American participants. Honor values were associated with evaluations of the targets most strongly among Turkish participants who read about a person who confronted their attacker. These findings provide insight into the role of cultural norms and individual differences in the ways honor influences behavior.
  • honor,
  • Turkey
Publication Date
Citation Information
Susan E Cross, Ayse K Uskul, Berna Gercek-Swing, Zeynep Sunbay, et al.. "Confrontation vs. withdrawal: Cultural differences in responses to threats to honor" Group Processes and Intergroup Relations Vol. 16 (2013)
Available at: