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Electrodeposition of lead-free solder alloys
Soldering & Surface Mount Technology (2013)

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to enhance the understanding on the electrodeposition of various lead (Pb)-free solder alloys, so that new studies can be carried out to solve processing issues. Design/methodology/approach - The paper reviews the available reports on the electrodeposition of tin (Sn)-based solder systems and identifies the challenges in this area. Findings - Compositional control remains a major challenge in this area, where the achievement of desired composition for binary and ternary alloys is subjected to uncertainties. The use of chelating agents in the bath and optimization of parameters can assist the achievement of near-desired alloy composition. Acidic plating baths are preferred due to their compatibility with photoresists but oxidation of stannous ions causes poor bath stability. Antioxidants, reducing agents and low oxygen overpotential anodes can suppress the oxidation rate and increase the lifespan of plating baths. Apart from chelating agents and antioxidants, various categories of additives can be added to improve quality of deposits. Surfactants, grain refiners and brighteners are routinely used to obtain smooth, fine-grained and bright deposits with good thermo-mechanical properties. Originality/value - The paper provides information on the key issues in electrodeposition of Pb-free solder alloys. Possible measures to alleviate the issues are suggested so that the electrodeposition technique can be established for mass production of a wider range of solder alloys. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • Additives,
  • Alloy composition,
  • Alloys,
  • Bath stability,
  • Electrodeposition,
  • Electroplating,
  • Sn-based solder,
  • Alloy compositions,
  • Design/methodology/approach,
  • Electrodeposition technique,
  • Lead-free solder alloy,
  • Optimization of parameters,
  • Sn-based solders,
  • Thermomechanical properties,
  • Alloying,
  • Cerium alloys,
  • Chelation,
  • Deposits,
  • Lead,
  • Mechanical properties,
  • Photoresists,
  • Soldered joints,
  • Soldering alloys,
  • Tin
Publication Date
Citation Information
"Electrodeposition of lead-free solder alloys" Soldering & Surface Mount Technology Vol. 25 Iss. 2 (2013)
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