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The Economic Value of Patents, Licenses, and Plant Variety Protection
  • Gordon C. Rausser, University of California, Berkeley
  • Arthur A. Small
While biotechnology creates new opportunities for agriculture, developments are impeded by confusion in the system for awarding intellectual property rights (IPRs) over agro-biotechnological innovations. An intelligent redesign of the IPR system requires attention to how the definition of rights interacts with the market environment, generating incentives to create value. A distinction is drawn between cost-reducing innovations that increase the efficiency of producing homogeneous outputs and value-adding innovations that create entirely new types of differentiated outputs. A reform is proposed that would require the mandatory sublicensing of genes and certain core enabling technologies for creating genetically altered organisms.
  • agriculture,
  • biotechnology,
  • intellectual property,
  • market structure
Publication Date
June 1, 1996
Citation Information
Gordon C. Rausser and Arthur A. Small. "The Economic Value of Patents, Licenses, and Plant Variety Protection" (1996)
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