Skip to main content
Developing an Effective Criminal Justice Response to Human Trafficking: Lessons from the Front Line
International Criminal Justice Review (2008)
  • Anne T Gallagher
  • Paul Holmes

Trafficking in persons now affects all regions and most countries of the world. Over the past decade, there has been increasing acceptance of the need for an effective, internationally coordinated response. However, the practical difficulties in realizing this goal are considerable. No country can yet lay claim to genuine, extensive experience in dealing with trafficking as a criminal phenomenon. Most are developing and adapting their responses on the run, often under strong political pressure, and principally through trial and error. While communication between national agencies on this issue is improving, there is still very little cooperation or cross-fertilization of ideas across national borders. The authors draw on emerging interna- tional rules as well as their experience of working with States and intergovernmental organizations on this issue to propose eight elements of an effective national criminal justice response to human trafficking. Each is described in detail, justified with reference to relevant international standards, and illustrated with examples from current professional practice.

  • trafficking,
  • trafficking in persons,
  • human trafficking,
  • international law,
  • human rights,
  • organized crime,
  • transnational organized crime
Publication Date
September, 2008
Citation Information
Anne T Gallagher and Paul Holmes. "Developing an Effective Criminal Justice Response to Human Trafficking: Lessons from the Front Line" International Criminal Justice Review Vol. 18 Iss. 3 (2008)
Available at: