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Health Action Process Approach: Application to Medication Adherence in Cardiac Rehabilitation Patients
Educational Gerontology
  • Anna E. Greer, Sacred Heart University
  • Kerry A. Milner, Sacred Heart University
  • Richard T. Marcello, Sacred Heart University
  • Katie Mazin, Sacred Heart University
Document Type
Peer-Reviewed Article
Publication Date

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) post-intentional constructs (maintenance self-efficacy, recovery self-efficacy, action planning, coping planning) and medication adherence among phase II cardiac rehabilitation (CR) patients. Research Method: Purposive sampling was used to recruit 91 phase II CR patients age 50 years and over. All respondents completed paper and pencil questionnaire examining HAPA post-intentional constructs (action planning, coping planning, maintenance self-efficacy, recovery self-efficacy), medication adherence, and demographic characteristics. Validity and reliability were confirmed for all scales included in the questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to describe respondents’ characteristics. Bivariate statistics (correlation, Mann-Whitney U-test, Kruskal Wallis test) were used to examine associations between medication adherence and each HAPA post-intention construct as well as medication adherence and respondent demographic characteristics. Results: Better medication adherence was associated with greater maintenance self-efficacy (-.290, .006) and better action planning skills (r=-.233, p = .027) and coping planning skills (r=-.277, p = .008) as indicated by higher scores on the maintenance self-efficacy, action planning, and coping planning scales. There was no significant linear relationship between medication adherence and recovery self-efficacy (r=-.103, p = .335) or medication adherence and any of the respondents’ demographic characteristics (p > .05). Only maintenance self-efficacy remained significant in a multivariate model predicting medication adherence. Conclusions: Greater maintenance self-efficacy was associated with increased medication adherence; health professionals working in CR settings might consider opportunities to enhance maintenance self-efficacy for medication adherence. Additional research is needed to identify strategies for promoting maintenance self-efficacy for medication adherence.


Accepted author version posted online: 12 May 2015

Citation Information

Greer, Anna E. et al. "Health Action Process Approach: Application to Medication Adherence in Cardiac Rehabilitation Patients." Educational Gerontology (2015) DOI: 10.1080/03601277.2015.1048147