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Review: Transport Losses in Market Weight Pigs: I. A Review of Definitions, Incidence, and Economic Impact
Professional Animal Scientist
  • M. J. Ritter, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
  • M. Ellis, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
  • N. L. Berry, Cargill Inc.
  • S E. Curtis, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
  • L. Anil, University of Minnesota - Twin Cities
  • E. Berg, North Dakota State University - Main Campus
  • M. Benjamin, Veterinary Services Consulting
  • D. Butler, University of Guelph
  • C. Dewey, University of Guelph
  • B Driessen, K. H. Kempen and Zootechnical Centre
  • Paul R. DuBois, Cargill Meat Solutions
  • J. D. Hill, Innovative Livestock Solutions
  • J. N. Marchant-Forde, United States Department of Agriculture
  • P. Matzat, Elanco Animal Health
  • John J. McGlone, Texas Tech University
  • P. Mormede, University of Bordeaux
  • T. Moyer, Hatfield Quality Meats
  • K. Pfalzgraf, Tyson Fresh Meats
  • J. Salak-Johnson, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
  • M. Siemens, Cargill Meat Solutions
  • J. Sterle, Texas A & M University - College Station
  • C. Stull, University of California - Davis
  • T. Whiting, Manitoba Agriculture and Food
  • B. Wolter, National Pork Board
  • S. R. Niekamp, National Pork Board
  • Anna K. Johnson, Iowa State University
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Transport losses (dead and nonambulatory pigs) present animal welfare, legal, and economic challenges to the US swine industry. The objectives of this review are to explore 1) the historical perspective of transport losses; 2) the incidence and economic implications of transport losses; and 3) the symptoms and metabolic characteristics of fatigued pigs. In 1933 and 1934, the incidence of dead and nonambulatory pigs was reported to be 0.08 and 0.16%, respectively. More recently, 23 commercial field trials (n = 6,660,569 pigs) were summarized and the frequency of dead pigs, nonambulatory pigs, and total transport losses at the processing plant were 0.25, 0.44, and 0.69% respectively. In 2006, total economic losses associated with these transport losses were estimated to cost the US pork industry approximately $46 million. Furthermore, 0.37 and 0.05% of the nonambulatory pigs were classified as either fatigued (nonambulatory, noninjured) or injured, respectively, in 18 of these trials (n = 4,966,419 pigs). Fatigued pigs display signs of acute stress (open-mouth breathing, skin discoloration, muscle tremors) and are in a metabolic state of acidosis, characterized by low blood pH and high blood lactate concentrations; however, the majority of fatigued pigs will recover with rest. Transport losses are a multifactorial problem consisting of people, pig, facility design, management, transportation, processing plant, and environmental factors, and, because of these multiple factors, continued research efforts are needed to understand how each of the factors and the relationships among factors affect the well-being of the pig during the marketing process.

This article is from Professional Animal Scientist 25 (2009): 404.

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Citation Information
M. J. Ritter, M. Ellis, N. L. Berry, S E. Curtis, et al.. "Review: Transport Losses in Market Weight Pigs: I. A Review of Definitions, Incidence, and Economic Impact" Professional Animal Scientist Vol. 25 Iss. 4 (2009) p. 404 - 414
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