- Comparative genomics,
- Extreme environments -- Microbiology,
- Hot springs,
- Thermophilic microorganisms,
Thermophilic Archaea and Bacteria occupy heated environments. Advancement of next-generation sequencing (NGS), single-cell analyses, and combinations of –omics and microscopic technologies have resulted in the discovery of new thermophiles. This e-book consists of a review, and 10 original articles authored by 94 authors. The main aim of this Research Topic of Frontiers in Microbiology was to provide a platform for researchers to describe recent findings on the ecology of thermophiles using NGS, functional genomics, comparative genomics, gene evolution, and extremozyme discovery.