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Parent behavior and child distress during urethral catheterization
Journal of the Society of Pediatric Nurses
  • Charmaine Kleiber, University of Iowa
  • Ann Marie McCarthy, University of Iowa
Document Type
Peer Reviewed
Publication Date
NLM Title Abbreviation
J Soc Pediatr Nurs
PubMed ID
DOI of Published Version
ISSUES AND PURPOSE: Researchers need a clear understanding of the natural behaviors parents use to help their children cope. This study describes the relationships between naturally occurring parent behaviors and child distress behaviors during urethral catheterization. DESIGN AND METHODS: In this descriptive study, researchers videotaped the behaviors of parent-child interactions during urethral catheterization. RESULTS: Parents used distraction to maintain calm behavior during the first part of the procedure and used more reassurance when the children started to become distressed. Seven of the nine children displayed calm behavior at least half the time following distraction. Parental reassurance did not decrease distress behavior in most children. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Early implementation of developmentally appropriate nursing interventions to decrease child distress is imperative. Parents may need specific instruction and practice to continue the use of distraction throughout procedures, even when the child is upset.
  • Adaptation,
  • Psychological,
  • Child,
  • Child Behavior,
  • Child Development,
  • Child Psychology,
  • Child,
  • Preschool,
  • Female,
  • Humans,
  • Male,
  • Nursing Methodology Research,
  • Parenting/psychology,
  • Parents/education/psychology,
  • Pilot Projects,
  • Stress,
  • Psychological/etiology/prevention & control/psychology,
  • Urinary Catheterization/adverse effects/psychology,
  • Videotape Recording
Journal Article Version
Version of Record
Published Article/Book Citation
Journal of the Society of Pediatric Nurses, 4:3 (1999) pp.95-104.
Copyright © Wiley, 1999. Posted by permission.
Citation Information
Charmaine Kleiber and Ann Marie McCarthy. "Parent behavior and child distress during urethral catheterization" Journal of the Society of Pediatric Nurses Vol. 4 Iss. 3 (1999) p. 95 - 104 ISSN: 1088-145X
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