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Parent socialization, family economic well-being, and toddlers' cognitive development in rural Paraguay
Journal of Research in Childhood Education
  • Ann Marie Berghout Austin, Utah State University
  • C. N. de Aquino
  • E. U. de Burro
  • K. E. Park
  • B. Bayley
  • M. Christensen
  • S. Leavitt
  • J. Merrill
  • D. Taylor
  • A. T. George
Document Type
Taylor & Francis (Routledge)
Publication Date
This study examined the specific factors relative to healthy socialization and economic well-being that predicted toddler mental development in rural Paraguay. Thirty toddlers and their primary caregivers were assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II (BSID-II), the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) to assess socialization, and a Family Resource Survey to assess economic well-being. As has been found in other studies, parent responsivity, parent support of child learning, and family economic well-being predicted BSID-II scores. Similar to results from other developing world samples, children's mental development scores decreased across the second year of life, a finding attributed to the parasitic load that many rural Paraguayan children carry, their family's lack of social capital, and inadequate parent-child socialization. The framework for the paper is centered on Amartya Sen's (1999) contention that family-, community-, and country-level well-being must be adequate to support healthy human development.
Citation Information
Parent socialization, family economic well-being, and toddlers’ cognitive development in rural Paraguay. Austin, A.M.B., Blevins-Knabe, B., de Aquino, C.N., de Burró, E.U., Park, K-E, Bayley, B., Christensen, M., Leavitt, S., Merrill, J., Taylor, D., & George, A.T. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 20 (4), 255-274.