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The Malaria Testing and Treatment Market in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2013
Malaria Journal
  • Angela Alum, ACTwatch Group
  • Andrew Andrada, ACTwatch Group
  • Julie Archer, ACTwatch Group
  • Erik Auko, ACTwatch Group
  • Katie Bates, ACTwatch Group
  • Paul Bouanchaud, ACTwatch Group
  • Meghan Bruce, ACTwatch Group
  • Angela Camilleri, ACTwatch Group
  • Emily Carter, ACTwatch Group
  • Steven Chapman, ACTwatch Group
  • Nikki Charman, ACTwatch Group
  • Desmond Chavasse, ACTwatch Group
  • Kevin Duff, ACTwatch Group
  • Keith Esch, ACTwatch Group
  • Anna Fulton, ACTwatch Group
  • Illah Evance, ACTwatch Group
  • Anna Fulton, ACTwatch Group
  • Helen Gataaka, ACTwatch Group
  • Tarryn Haslam, ACTwatch Group
  • Emily Harris, ACTwatch Group
  • Catherine A. Hurley, ACTwatch Group
  • Beth Kangwana, ACTwatch Group
  • Esther Kabui, ACTwatch Group
  • Gloria Kigo, ACTwatch Group
  • Aliza Lailari, ACTwatch Group
  • Megan Littrell, ACTwatch Group
  • Erik Munroe Julius Ngigi, ACTwatch Group
  • Kathryn A. O'Connell, ACTwatch Group
  • Ricki Orford, ACTwatch Group
  • Carolyne Ochieng, ACTwatch Group
  • Linda Ongwenyi, ACTwatch Group
  • Stephen Poyer, ACTwatch Group
  • Justin Rahariniaina, ACTwatch Group
  • Lanto Razafindralambo, ACTwatch Group
  • Christina Riley, ACTwatch Group
  • John Rodgers, ACTwatch Group
  • Tanya Shewchuk, ACTwatch Group
  • Julianna Smith, ACTwatch Group
  • Tsione Solomon, ACTwatch Group
  • Raymond Sudoi, ACTwatch Group
  • Martine Esther Tassiba, ACTwatch Group
  • Katherine Thanel, ACTwatch Group
  • Andria Rusk, ACTwatch Group
  • Rachel Thompson, ACTwatch Group
  • Mitsuru Toda, ACTwatch Group
  • Marie-Alix Valensi, ACTwatch Group
  • Vamsi Vasireddy, ACTwatch Group
  • Cynthia Whitman, ACTwatch Group
  • Godéfroid Mpanya, Association de Santé Familial
  • Antoinette Tshefu, Ecole de Santé Public de Kinshasa
  • Joris Losimba Likwela, National Malaria Control Programme
Document Type
Publication Date
Public Health
Background The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is one of the two most leading contributors to the global burden of disease due to malaria. This paper describes the malaria testing and treatment market in the nation’s capital province of Kinshasa, including availability of malaria testing and treatment and relative anti-malarial market share for the public and private sector. Methods A malaria medicine outlet survey was conducted in Kinshasa province in 2013. Stratified multi-staged sampling was used to select areas for the survey. Within sampled areas, all outlets with the potential to sell or distribute anti-malarials in the public and private sector were screened for eligibility. Among outlets with anti-malarials or malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) in stock, a full audit of all available products was conducted. Information collected included product information (e.g. active ingredients, brand name), amount reportedly distributed to patients in the past week, and retail price. Results In total, 3364 outlets were screened for inclusion across Kinshasa and 1118 outlets were eligible for the study. Among all screened outlets in the private sector only about one in ten (12.1%) were stocking quality-assured Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT) medicines. Among all screened public sector facilities, 24.5% had both confirmatory testing and quality-assured ACT available, and 20.2% had sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) available for intermittent preventive therapy during pregnancy (IPTp). The private sector distributed the majority of anti-malarials in Kinshasa (96.7%), typically through drug stores (89.1% of the total anti-malarial market). Non-artemisinin therapies were the most commonly distributed anti-malarial (50.1% of the total market), followed by non quality-assured ACT medicines (38.5%). The median price of an adult quality-assured ACT was $6.59, and more expensive than non quality-assured ACT ($3.71) and SP ($0.44). Confirmatory testing was largely not available in the private sector (1.1%). Conclusions While the vast majority of anti-malarial medicines distributed to patients in Kinshasa province are sold within the private sector, availability of malaria testing and appropriate treatment for malaria is alarmingly low. There is a critical need to improve access to confirmatory testing and quality-assured ACT in the private sector. Widespread availability and distribution of non quality-assured ACT and non-artemisinin therapies must be addressed to ensure effective malaria case management.

Dr. Megan Littrell (Principal Investigator, 2014-2017); Dr. Kathryn A. O’Connell (Principal Investigator, 2008-2012); Dr. Vamsi Vasireddy (Principal Investigator, 2013)


Copyright © The Author(s), 2017

Publisher Statement
Originally published as Mpanya, G., Tshefu, A., & Likwela, J. L. (2017). The malaria testing and treatment market in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2013. Malaria Journal, 16(1), 94.
Creative Commons License
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0
Citation Information
Angela Alum, Andrew Andrada, Julie Archer, Erik Auko, et al.. "The Malaria Testing and Treatment Market in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2013" Malaria Journal Vol. 16 Iss. 94 (2017) p. 1 - 11 ISSN: 1475-2875
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