The last two decades have witnessed a proliferation of scholarly discourse on performance management. This discourse evolved out of a number of forces in the early 1990s from the new public management movement, which called for government to show its efficiency in expending public resources as well as prove that substantive results—or outcomes related to a program‘s effectiveness—had been generated by its activities. In addition, Osborne and Gaebler‘s (1992) 161 Reinventing Government echoed a revolutionary change in conventional wisdom by deploying words such as "reengineering," "entrepreneurial management," "empowerment," and "privatization". The reinvention legacy was pushed forward by President Bill Clinton in 1993 through the creation of the National Performance Review, chaired by Vice President Al Gore, and the adoption of Government Performance and Results Act of 1993, which strengthened federal agency efforts to improve results or outcomes through performance measurement and other initiatives. As federal agencies developed performance standards at the program level as well as in the management and administrative functions, state governments and their localities were compelled to adopt the same measures as a method of assessing their activities and enhancing their reporting mechanism under federal programs and mandates. In view of this, the purpose of the proposed manuscript is to explore the literature on performance-based management and offer recommendations on how to implement successful performance measurement system. The paper will begin with a historical overview. This will be followed by a discussion of types and applications of performance measurement, limitations and benefits, and a comparative analysis of performance measurement efforts in the State of Georgia and the City of Kennesaw, Georgia. Additionally, the manuscript will offer some implementation challenges and solutions.
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/andrew_ewoh/34/