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Achievement test performance in children conceived by IVF
Human reproduction (Oxford, England)
  • L. Mains
  • M. Zimmerman
  • J. Blaine
  • B. Stegmann
  • Amy E.T. Sparks, University of Iowa
  • T. Ansley
  • Bradley J. Van Voorhis, University of Iowa
Document Type
Peer Reviewed
Publication Date
NLM Title Abbreviation
Hum Reprod
PubMed ID
DOI of Published Version
BACKGROUND: Long-term follow-up studies of children conceived by IVF are limited. We examine academic performance on standardized tests [Iowa Tests of Basic Skills/Educational Development (ITBS/ITED)] of children conceived by IVF. METHODS: Parents of children 8-17 years of age at the onset of the study (March 2008) who were conceived by IVF at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics and living in the state of Iowa were contacted by mail. Parents completed questionnaires on their child's health and education and parental education. ITBS/ITED scores from school grades 3-12 were obtained on IVF children and a group of anonymous children matched by grade, year, gender and school district. Scores were analyzed using linear mixed models. RESULTS: Four hundred and ninety-seven couples were contacted. Two hundred and ninety-five couples (463 children) agreed to participate (59.4% of parents), with ITBS/ITED scores available on 423 children (91.4% of participants). IVF children scored higher than the national mean (P < 0.0001) across all grades and subtests and higher than their matched peers for grades 3-11. A trend toward lower test scores in multiple gestations was present (but not significant). Factors found to affect test scores included parental level of education, maternal age, divorce and child's BMI. Cryopreservation, length of embryo culture and method of insemination did not affect scores. CONCLUSIONS: IVF children scored higher on standardized tests than their matched peers, suggesting that IVF does not have a negative effect on cognitive development. However, long-term follow-up of IVF children is still limited. Further research should be performed on the effect of multiple gestation on academic performance.
  • Adolescent,
  • Adolescent Development,
  • Body Mass Index,
  • Child,
  • Child Development,
  • Cognition,
  • Cohort Studies,
  • Cryopreservation,
  • Divorce/psychology/statistics & numerical data,
  • Educational Status,
  • Embryo Culture Techniques,
  • Female,
  • Fertilization in Vitro/adverse effects,
  • Humans,
  • Iowa/epidemiology,
  • Male,
  • Maternal Age,
  • Retrospective Studies
Published Article/Book Citation
Human reproduction (Oxford, England), 25:10 (2010) pp.2605-2611.
Citation Information
L. Mains, M. Zimmerman, J. Blaine, B. Stegmann, et al.. "Achievement test performance in children conceived by IVF" Human reproduction (Oxford, England) Vol. 25 Iss. 10 (2010) p. 2605 - 2611 ISSN: 1460-2350
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