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An International Assessment of Mangrove Management: Incorporation in Integrated Coastal Zone Management
  • Haille N. Carter, Galveston Bay Foundation
  • Steffen W. Schmidt, Iowa State University
  • Amy Hirons, Nova Southeastern University
Document Type
Publication Date
  • Mangrove conservation,
  • Ecosystem management,
  • Integrated coastal zone management,
  • Land-use policy,
  • Economic valuation
Due to increasing recognition of the benefits provided by mangrove ecosystems, protection policies have emerged under both wetland and forestry programs. However, little consistency remains among these programs and inadequate coordination exists among sectors of government. With approximately 123 countries containing mangroves, the need for global management of these ecosystems is crucial to sustain the industries (i.e., fisheries, timber, and tourism) and coastal communities that mangroves support and protect. To determine the most effective form of mangrove management, this review examines management guidelines, particularly those associated with Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM). Five case studies were reviewed to further explore the fundamentals of mangrove management. The management methodologies of two developed nations as well as three developing nations were assessed to encompass comprehensive influences on mangrove management, such as socioeconomics, politics, and land-use regulations. Based on this review, successful mangrove management will require a blend of forestry, wetland, and ICZM programs in addition to the cooperation of all levels of government. Legally binding policies, particularly at the international level, will be essential to successful mangrove management, which must include the preservation of existing mangrove habitat and restoration of damaged mangroves.

©2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (

Citation Information
Haille N. Carter, Steffen W. Schmidt and Amy Hirons. "An International Assessment of Mangrove Management: Incorporation in Integrated Coastal Zone Management" Diversity Vol. 7 Iss. 2 (2015) p. 74 - 104 ISSN: 1424-2818
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