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The Religification of Pakistani-American Youth
American Educational Research Journal
  • Ameena Ghaffar-Kucher, University of Pennsylvania
Document Type
Journal Article
Date of this Version
This article describes a cultural production process called religification, in which religious affiliation, rather than race or ethnicity, has become the core category of identity for working-class Pakistani-American youth in the United States. In this dialectical process, triggered by political changes following the September 11 terrorist attacks, the Muslim identity is both thrust upon Pakistani-American youth by those who question their citizenship and embraced by the youth themselves. Specifically, the article examines the ways in which schools are sites where citizenship is both constructed and contested and the roles that peers, school personnel, families, and the youth themselves play in this construction/contestation of citizenship.
Copyright/Permission Statement

The final, definitive version of this article has been published in the Journal,American Educational Research Journal,© 2011 SAGE Publications, Inc. Available at:

  • citizenship,
  • immigrant youth,
  • Muslim,
  • working-class,
  • post 9/11
Citation Information
Ameena Ghaffar-Kucher. "The Religification of Pakistani-American Youth" American Educational Research Journal Vol. 49 Iss. 1 (2011) p. 30 - 52
Available at: