Skip to main content
Article
Contributions of enriched cereal-grain products, ready-to-eat cereals, and supplements to folic acid and vitamin B-12 usual intake and folate and vitamin B-12 status in US children: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003–2006
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
  • Lorraine F. Yeung, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  • Mary E. Cogswell, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  • Alicia L. Carriquiry, Iowa State University
  • Lynn B. Bailey, University of Florida
  • Christine M. Pfeiffer, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  • Robert J. Berry, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Document Type
Article
Publication Version
Published Version
Publication Date
1-1-2011
DOI
10.3945/ajcn.2010.30127
Abstract
Background: US children consume folic acid from multiple sources. These sources may contribute differently to usual intakes above the age-specific tolerable upper intake level (UL) for folic acid and to folate and vitamin B-12 status. Objective: We estimated usual daily folic acid intakes above the UL and adjusted serum and red blood cell folate, serum vitamin B-12, homocysteine, and methylmalonic acid (MMA) concentrations in US children by age group and by the following 3 major folic acid intake sources: enriched cereal-grain products (ECGP), ready-to-eat cereals (RTE), and supplements containing folic acid (SUP). Design: We analyzed data in 4 groups of children aged 1-3, 4-8, 9-13, and 14-18 y from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003-2006 (n = 7161). Results: A total of 19-48% of children consumed folic acid from ECGP only. Intakes above the UL varied from 0-0.1% of children who consumed ECGP only to 15-78% of children who consumed ECGP+RTE+SUP. In children aged 1-8 y, 99-100% of those who consumed >200 ug folic acid/d from supplements exceeded their UL. Although <0.5% of children had folate deficiency or low vitamin B-12 status, the consumption of RTE or SUP with folic acid was associated with higher mean folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations and, in some older children, with lower homocysteine and MMA concentrations. Conclusions: Our data suggest that the majority of US children consume more than one source of folic acid. Postfortification, the consumption of RTE or SUP increases usual daily intakes and blood concentrations of folate and vitamin B-12.
Comments

This article is from American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 93 (2011): 172, doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2010.30127.

Rights
Works produced by employees of the U.S. Government as part of their official duties are not copyrighted within the U.S. The content of this document is not copyrighted.
Language
en
File Format
application/pdf
Citation Information
Lorraine F. Yeung, Mary E. Cogswell, Alicia L. Carriquiry, Lynn B. Bailey, et al.. "Contributions of enriched cereal-grain products, ready-to-eat cereals, and supplements to folic acid and vitamin B-12 usual intake and folate and vitamin B-12 status in US children: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003–2006" American Journal of Clinical Nutrition Vol. 93 Iss. 1 (2011) p. 172 - 186
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/alicia_carriquiry/44/