In a recent replication study with the Chinese Geriatric Depression Scale (30 items, i.e. CGDS-30, originally validated in Chan (1996), N=323) carried out by Chan, Challis and Wong (1999) in Manchester with Chinese elderly migrants (N=43), significant differences between Hong Kong-Manchester groups were noted in case-identification (using both scale mean score at 11 and 14). In order to further affirm and explain these differences as well as similarities, the present study utilized secondary data from another study (Lis et al's PSSRU GDS-12 validation study (1999), N=248) to look at similarities and differences in the scale and items performance between the Chinese elders in Hong Kong, Chinese elders and English White elders in Manchester, UK. The results indicated a pattern that Chinese elderly migrants from Hong Kong now residing in Manchester might have changed their expectation to a more reliance on state support and a less dependency from informal sources including their family, but might also have retained some values thought to be desirable. Two panel studies (in the form of focus groups) were conducted to verify and explain the findings.
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