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Article
Reconceptualizing Trespass
Northwestern University Law Review (2009)
  • Alex Stein
  • Gideon Parchomovsky
Abstract

This Essay addresses an anomaly in trespass law. Trespass law is generally understood as the paradigmatic example of property-rule protection: an owner can obtain an injunction against the trespasser and have him removed from her land. The property-rule protection enjoyed by the owner protects her right to exclude others and to set the price for the use of her property. However, the property-rule protection only exists ex ante: it avails only against imminent or ongoing trespasses. Ex post, after a trespass ends, the owner can only recover compensation measured by the market value of the unauthorized use, i.e., the going rent. This liability-rule compensation dilutes the ex ante property-rule protection of ownership. Effectively, it grants trespassers a call option on others’ property, creating a mismatch between rights and remedies. To remedy this mismatch, we introduce the concept of “propertized compensation”—a damage measure that sets compensation equal to the owner’s pre-trespass asking price. We contend that propertized compensation should become the primary remedial option in trespass cases. The use of this measure will reinstate the owner’s position as a price maker, entitling her to recover the amount that she would have agreed to accept ex ante in a voluntary exchange. We further argue that owners who cannot produce evidence regarding their pre-trespass asking price (as well as owners who prefer not to seek propertized compensation) should be entitled to seek disgorgement of the trespasser’s profits. Finally, we claim, contra the extant regime, that market-value compensation should only be used in the exceptional cases of trespass by necessity, media trespass, and good faith encroachments. In all other cases, it should only be awarded if the owners specifically ask for it.

Keywords
  • property rules,
  • liability rules,
  • propertized compensation,
  • disgorgement,
  • trespass,
  • incentives,
  • transaction costs,
  • right to exclude
Disciplines
Publication Date
2009
Citation Information
Alex Stein and Gideon Parchomovsky. "Reconceptualizing Trespass" Northwestern University Law Review Vol. 103 (2009)
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/alex_stein/13/