Participants in the present study were 207 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) who completed internal HLOC and depression measures at baseline and at an approximately 16-month follow-up period. Regression results indicated that after controlling for baseline level of depression, baseline internal HLOC was not a significant predictor of depression at follow-up. However, increases in internal HLOC over the 16-month follow-up were predictive of depression at follow-up. Furthermore, this relationship was qualified by an interaction between change in internal HLOC and disease progression. These results suggest that changes in internal HLOC over time may be a particularly important determinant of adjustment for individuals whose chronic illness progresses or becomes life threatening.