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The Dragonfly Nearby Galaxies Survey. V. HST/ACS Observations of 23 Low Surface Brightness Objects in the Fields of NGC 1052, NGC 1084, M96, and NGC 4258
The Astrophysical Journal (2018)
  • Yotam Cohen, Yale University
  • Pieter van Dokkum, Yale University
  • Shany Danieli, Yale University
  • Aaron J. Romanowsky, San Jose State University
  • Roberto Abraham, University of Toronto
  • Allison Merritt, Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie
  • Jielai Zhang, University of Toronto
  • Lamiya Mowla, Yale University
  • J. M. Diederik Kruijssen, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg
  • Charlie Conroy, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
  • Asher Wasserman, University of California, Santa Cruz
We present Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) imaging of 23 very low surface brightness (μ e,V  ~ 25–27.5) galaxies detected in the fields of four nearby galaxy groups. These objects were selected from deep optical imaging obtained with the Dragonfly Telephoto Array. Seven are newly identified, while most of the others had been seen previously in visual surveys of deep photographic plates and more recent surveys. Few have previously been studied in detail. From the ACS images, we measure distances to the galaxies using both the tip of the red giant branch method and the surface brightness fluctuations method. We demonstrate that the two methods are consistent with each other in the regime where both can be applied. The distances to 15 out of 20 galaxies with stable measurements are consistent with that of the targeted group within errors. This suggests that assuming group membership based solely on projected proximity is ~75% successful in this regime. The galaxies are nearly round, with a median axis ratio of 0.85, and visually resemble dwarf spheroidal galaxies. The objects have a range of sizes, from R e  = 0.4 kpc to R e  = 1.8 kpc, with a median $\langle {R}_{e}\rangle =1.0\,\mathrm{kpc}$. They range in luminosity from M V  = −11.4 to M V  = −15.6, with a median $\langle {M}_{V}\rangle =-12.4$. Galaxies with R e  ~ 1 kpc and M V  ~ −12 are fairly rare in the Local Group, but we find many of them in this relatively small sample. Four of the objects fall in the class of ultra-diffuse galaxies, with R e  > 1.5 kpc and μ 0,V  > 24 mag arcsec−2, including the recently identified dark matter deficient galaxy NGC 1052-DF2.
Publication Date
November 27, 2018
Publisher Statement
This article was originally published in The Astrophysical Journal, volume 868, issue 2. © 2018. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

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Citation Information
Yotam Cohen, Pieter van Dokkum, Shany Danieli, Aaron J. Romanowsky, et al.. "The Dragonfly Nearby Galaxies Survey. V. HST/ACS Observations of 23 Low Surface Brightness Objects in the Fields of NGC 1052, NGC 1084, M96, and NGC 4258" The Astrophysical Journal Vol. 868 Iss. 2 (2018) p. 1 - 14 ISSN: 0004-637X
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