Genetic polymorphism in Gymnodinium galatheanum chloroplast DNA sequences and development of a molecular detection assay
Nuclear and chloroplast-encoded small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences were obtained from several strains of the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium galatheanum . Phylogenetic analyses and comparison of sequences indicate that the chloroplast sequences show a higher degree of sequence divergence than the nuclear homologue. The chloroplast sequences were chosen as targets for the development of a 5'–3' exonuclease assay for detection of the organism. The assay has a very high degree of specificity and has been used to screen environmental water samples from a fish farm where the presence of this dinoflagellate species has previously been associated with fish kills. Various hypotheses for the derived nature of the chloroplast sequences are discussed, as well as what is known about the toxicity of the species.
Tengs T, Bowers HA, Ziman AP, Stoecker DK, Oldach DW. Genetic polymorphism in Gymnodinium galatheanum chloroplast DNA sequences and development of a molecular detection assay. Molecular Ecology 2001 Feb;10(2):515-523.