Parametric Catalan Numbers and Catalan Triangles
Here presented a generalization of Catalan numbers and Catalan triangles associated with two parameters based on the sequence characterization of Bell-type Riordan arrays. Among the generalized Catalan numbers, a class of large generalized Catalan numbers and a class of small generalized Catalan numbers are defined, which can be considered as an extension of large Schr\"oder numbers and small Schr\"oder numbers, respectively. Using the characterization sequences of Bell-type Riordan arrays, some properties and expressions including the Taylor expansions of generalized Catalan numbers are given. A few combinatorial interpretations of the generalized Catalan numbers are also provided. Finally, a generalized Motzkin numbers and Motzkin triangles are defined similarly. An interrelationship among parametrical Catalan triangle, Pascal triangle, and Motzkin triangle is presented based on the sequence characterization of Bell-type Riordan arrays.
Tian-Xiao He. "Parametric Catalan Numbers and Catalan Triangles" Linear Algebra and Its Applications 438.3 (2013): 1467-1484.
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/tian_xiao_he/15
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